According to the U.S. Census Bureau's American Community Survey (2019), many minority groups in the U.S. out-earn whites, including:
Median U.S. Household Income (2019)
Indian Americans: $126,705
Filipino Americans: $100,273
Pakistani Americans: $87,509
Iranian Americans: $87,288
Chinese Americans: $85,424
Japanese Americans: $85,007
Korean Americans: $76,674
Chilean Americans: $74,585
Syrian Americans: $74,047
Bolivian Americans: $72,699
Cambodian Americans: $72,038
Panamanian Americans: $70,895
White Americans: $69,823
Black Americans: $43,862
An article published in The Review of Economics and Statistics in 2005 compared educational and occupational outcomes for former slaves and their children and grandchildren to outcomes for free blacks and their children and grandchildren.
The author found that it took roughly two generations for the descendants of slaves to "catch up" to the descendants of free black men and women.
A study published in Social Science Quarterly in 2002 found that, although black and white judges weighted information in similar ways when making punishment decisions, “black judges were more likely to sentence both black and white offenders to prison."
A meta-analysis published in Law and Human Behavior in 2005 analyzed data from 34 studies in which people posed as jurors and voted on whether a given defendant was guilty or innocent and, if guilty, what sentence the defendant should serve.
The authors found, "Black participants were more likely to demonstrate racial bias in both verdict and sentencing decision.
A meta-analysis published in Psychology, Public Policy, and Law in 2014 also found "a stronger outgroup bias for Black jurors than White jurors."
According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, black people committed 90% of all interracial violent victimizations between blacks and whites in 2018.
A study published in the Social Science Quarterly in 2004 found that being African American instead of white is worth an average of 230 additional SAT points on a 1600-point scale.
Medical school data from 2013 to 2016 reveal that black (81.2%) and Hispanic (59.5%) applicants with average GPAs and average MCAT scores were accepted at rates much higher than the 30.6% average acceptance rate for all students.
A 2019 Georgetown University report revealed that, if students were only accepted based on SAT scores, white enrollment would grow by about 14 percent.
Meanwhile, the combined Black and Latino enrollment at selective colleges would be reduced by 43 percent, and Asian enrollment would decline as well—by roughly 9 percent.
A 2017 report found: “Nationwide, per-student K-12 education funding from all sources (local, state, and federal) is similar, on average, at the districts attended by poor students ($12,961) and non-poor students ($12,640)," a 2.5% difference in favor of poor students.
Research published by the Brookings Institution in 2017 revealed that “on average, poor and minority students receive between 1-2 percent more resources than non-poor or white students in their districts, equivalent to about $65 per pupil.”
Older studies examining school funding have come to similar conclusions, including those from the U.S. Department of Education (1996), Ph.D. economist Derek Neal (2006), the left-leaning Urban Institute (2008), and the right-leaning Heritage Foundation (2011).
Survey experiment studies permit assessment of racial discrimination by having people evaluate scenarios on topics like crime, punishment, and humanitarianism.
A meta-analysis of 17 such studies, published in Research and Politics in 2018, found:
A survey experiment involving 900 black people, also published in Research and Politics in 2018, found:
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A paper published in Public Opinion Quarterly in 2020 found, “White Americans’ expressed anti-Black and anti-Hispanic prejudice declined after Trump’s political emergence, and we can rule out even small increases in the expression of prejudice.”